Case Study: Manjot Chana
“I’ve always had an massive affinity for solving problems, for me life itself is a series of micro problems which need to be solved or optimised”
From robots to degree apprenticeship
Manjot grew up in Wolverhampton. As a young child he remembers being a big fan of Power rangers and playing with LEGO. He was always curious about how the robots fitted together. After his A-levels he decided to “break the norm” and applied for a degree apprenticeship at Jaguar Landrover instead of going to university.
‘You get paid and you get your degree, and I thought this is incredible! […] I need to start money ASAP to help out the family as oppose to purely the knowledge and the experience of a university degree.’
It took him 6 years to complete his apprenticeship. During that time Manjot, gained a lot of “hands on” skills which allow him to progress in his career.
Changing lives and help tackle climate change
Manjot works at H2GO Power, a company that is developing technology to capture and store surplus hydrogen generated from renewable energy sources. He joined this company as he wanted to use his engineering skills to help tackle climate change, and improve the quality of life of millions of people worldwide who don’t have access to a reliably source of energy.
As a senior integration system engineer Manjot needs to be logical as he makes different parts of systems to work well together:
‘I ensure the subsystems are communicating together: the data is flowing, the wiring is correct, the software is correct. As an integration engineer you need to know a lot about everything but only a shallow amount.’
The data never lies
Manjot is also extremely organised at work as he enjoys “closing loops” of pending tasks. He also believes that the data from experiments never lies and that it has a story to tell us. We just need to make sense of it! In reality, Manjot is obsessed with collecting data from life in general.
Break the norm and follow your dreams
Outside of work Manjot loves to read. If he could get a superpower it would be the ability to read and retain information faster. He also encourages others to take chances, to stay truth to themselves and to follow their dreams.
Case Study: Enass Abo-Hamed
“One of the things I find fascinating about engineering is that the greatest inventions of our lifetime are engineering inventions and they all come to solve a problem.”
Raising awareness of climate change
Originally from Palestine, Enass grew up watching her father, who was a mechanical engineer, building things and putting things together.
“ That was something that always intrigue me: the thinking process and the action that comes after that, which engineering really revolves around.”
This really impacted on her and the way she tackles challenges no matter how small or large: from starting her own company or being a passionate advocate in raising awareness of climate change.
It about bring the problem to many people whilst we are working on the solution. That’s where my activism comes from. […] Climate change is a very interconnected problem with others such as air pollution or food waste […] it’s everyone’s problem … everyone should know about it!
Storing hydrogen to produce energy
When Enass was doing her PhD at Cambridge University she invented an imaginative way to capture and store hydrogen safety, as a clean source of energy.
“Hydrogen is unique: very small, it doesn’t have any carbon; when you burn it you’re not generating emissions (carbon footprint). It’s a very elegant molecule with a very elegant solution that doesn’t emit pollutants. That can solve many of our energy problems…”
It took Enass a lot of hard-work to start her own company, H2GO Power, which stores hydrogen as part of a chemical reaction. The gas can be converted into solid state or liquid state. When the hydrogen in needed, it is released in a clean form (zero emissions) and in a controlled manner. This is an efficient, low cost, highly safe way to store hydrogen!
“I think hydrogen is the past, the present and the future. It was there at the very beginning and I bet it will be there in the future […] it’s a very central player into contributing to solve climate change…”
Energy is still a luxury for some …
A trip to Africa made Enass realised that sometimes energy cannot be taken for granted:
“There are 1.2 billion people around the world who do not have control over the switch! Africa has 600 million people who don’t have regular access to power. It shouldn’t be a problem that we have today with the technologies and resources we have around the world. There is an injustice to that, that bothers me personally, and If I have an ability to contribute to the solution, I should!”
More funding needed
According to Enass more funding should be available for entrepreneurs just like her to develop their own ideas. She believes in the power of working collaboratively and would like to see companies and government working together more closely to tackle climate change.
If there would be one thing I could change I would use more engineering to accelerate progress towards tackling climate change (…) we are working at slower pace than we should be.
Enass has won several awards for her activist including the Top 100 BAME leaders in UK Tech and Top 100 influential Women in Engineering in the UK and Europe by the Financial Times. You can watch her talking about climate change and her company below.
Case Study: Askwar Hilonga
“I’m giving back to my community and this is now inspiring many young engineers in Africa… it pays more to use our education, to use our innovation, our engineering, endeavours and success to solve the real challenges in our communities.”
From poverty to PhD
Hilonga was born in Gongali, a village near the Ngorongoro Crater in Tanzania. Growing up was challenging: the village had no electricity, and with limited access to clean water people struggled with waterborne diseases. Hilonga is the youngest of 9 siblings and he is thankful that his parents encouraged him to go to school and made sacrifices for him to get an education:
“I did my best to put all my attention in studies, particularly in science because I loved science …”
After graduating from secondary school Hilonga got a loan from the government which allowed him to study chemical engineering at university. He decided to keep investing in his education and completed a PhD at the university of Hanyang in South Korea.
Tackling waterborne diseases
Hilonga saw an opportunity to help his local community tackle their problems, in particular access to clean water.
“I wanted to make my PhD meaningful. If none of my studies will help solve problems in my local community then they are useless!”
He studied the water filters people were using, he observed water samples looking for contaminants, and talked to local hospitals about which waterborne diseases were affecting his community. With all this information, Hilonga quickly concluded that the water filters were not fit for purpose.
“There is a serious problem here and we need a solution. This is an opportunity for me to provide [that] solution!”
Water can be contaminated by many different types of bacteria or microorganisms, or by heavy metals such as copper. This makes it hard to find one approach to filtrationg which works for every situation. Being imaginative, Hilonga created a nanofilter which can be easily adapted to local communities and their water supplies. After observing and identifying different contaminants from water samples, Hilonga changes the shapes of nano-materials made of sodium silicate and silver so that these can trap different types of contaminants. This is often a trial and error process, so Hilonga needs to be tenacious.
The technology is so advanced that the filters can be adapted to cater for different types of water from local communities. Hilonga can also predict how long will it take for the contaminants to saturate the filters, so he can also advise on how often the filter will need replacing.
Supporting local communities
Hilonga has also spent some time creating his own business model which values local communities. He is the director of startup business Gongali Model, which currently employs 127 local people. The nanofilter is developed by local people, using local materials and can be repaired locally as well: a huge advantage in terms of sustainability and keeping costs down.
“The local people gain a lot from this business [….] There is a lot of win-win with job creation while we are solving the inherent challenges in our community like the waterborne diseases”
Hilonga wants to roll out the technology more widely, and has launched the campaign Thirst for Life. He aims to get 1,000 nanofilter water stations across Africa, from Egypt to Cape Town, over the next few years. This will bring clean water into the lives of 5 million people. One of his favourite quotes is:
“I want to be a millionaire. Not in terms of money, but in terms of impacting millions of lives!”
He hopes one day he gets to be a billionaire, impacting not millions but billions of lives!
Hilonga’s nanofilter technology has received several awards including – from the UK – the Africa Prize for Engineering Innovation 2015 sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering, and the Royal Family’s pitch@palace Innovation Award in 2016.
Chemical engineer, Director of Gongali Model
imaginative, observant, tenacious
Tag Archive for: chemistry
Water contains dissolved solutes and insoluble substances. These must be removed for water to be potable. This worksheet builds on student’s knowledge of separating mixtures, and looks at how water and why water is treated. This can then be extended into the importance of oxygenation of lake water.
Water contains dissolved solutes and insoluble substances. These must be removed for water to be potable.
This worksheet builds on student’s knowledge of separating mixtures, and looks at how water and why water is treated. This can then be extended into the importance of oxygenation of lake water.
Worksheet: Neutralisation (Year 9)
Pharmaceutical companies develop medicines to help people. Antacid tablets are used to neutralise excess acid in the human stomach. This worksheet builds on students’ knowledge of acids and indicator colours to plot a graph of a neutralisation reaction and to describe the trend of the data.
Pharmaceutical companies develop medicines to help people. Antacid tablets are used to neutralise excess acid in the human stomach.
This worksheet builds on students’ knowledge of acids and indicator colours to plot a graph of a neutralisation reaction and to describe the trend of the data.
Tag Archive for: chemistry
The Environmental Scientist
What is an environmental scientist?
Environmental scientists study the environment, and particularly the effects of human activity on it. By conducting tests and analysing data, they try to work out how to prevent and solve environmental problems.
They’ll gather samples and observational data in the field, and conduct tests in the lab. They analyse soil or air samples to find the type, concentration and source of pollution, which might be caused by industry or agriculture. The environmental scientist will identify whether the contamination could harm wildlife, plants or people. They’ll then identify ways to manage, minimise or eliminate negative impacts of the pollution.
Attributes: passionate, creative, committed
How does chromatography work?
Chromatography is a way of separating out a mixture into its different parts. We see objects because they reflect light into our eyes. Some molecules only reflect particular colours; when that light reaches our eyes, we see the object it reflected off as being a particular colour.
You’re probably used to the idea of ‘primary’ colours – colours which can be mixed together to make other colours. You’ve maybe mixed red, yellow and blue paints in different combinations to make greens, purples and oranges. The dyes in felt-tip pens might look like a single colour (‘dark blue’ or ‘light green’), but to achieve those colours a scientist might have mixed several pigments together.
Liquid chromatography – in the case of felt-tips, dabbing some dye on the end of a piece of tissue paper, then letting water soak up the paper, carrying the dye with it – can let you discover the hidden colours in the pen dyes. The solvent (water) is absorbed up the paper, taking the mixture with it. But larger, heavier molecules are dragged along more slowly than smaller, lighter ones, so the blob of dye gets spread out. Different parts of the smeared-out dye will be made of different pigments, which you’ll see as different colours.
Add all those colours up and you get the colour of the pen you started with.
How do environmental scientists use chromatography?
The paper chromatography you can do with felt-tip pens looks pretty, but it turns out not to be terribly useful for working scientists. However, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is the same idea, and it’s used very widely in chemistry. Just like paper chromatography, you use water (or another liquid) as a solvent to separate the components of the material you’re trying to investigate, like a dye. Rather than using tissue paper, you let the liquid flow along a ‘column’ – a thin tube – which is perhaps 10 or 20 cm long. You then investigate the substances which emerge from the end of the column, and how they change over time.
So with pen dye, the smaller pigment molecules would emerge first, with the larger ones making their way out later. Chemists, including environmental scientists, can use HPLC to investigate a wide range of samples.
Gas Chromatography is similar, but the solvent isn’t a liquid, it’s a gas. Because gasses flow more freely than liquids, the columns (tubes) need to be longer to achieve the separation of components – they might be dozens of metres long. Gas Chromatography is also used widely in chemistry.
Thin-layer chromatography is another technique, and it’s like an advanced version of the paper chromatography. It’s used for detecting pesticides or insecticides in food.
All of these methods work by separating out the individual components or parts of mixtures and solutions.
Do try this at home…
Chromatography with sweets
More investigations with water and colour
Plants take up water and nutrients from the soil, and this experiment gives you a glimpse of what’s going on. You could use celery instead of flowers, but remember to leave the leaves on!
Transpiration is where water travels from the soil, up tubes in plant stems to all parts of the plant, and eventually evaporates from the leaves. That constant flow of water gives the plant a way of moving food around itself, including moving nutrients from the soil, through the roots, up the stem, to the rest of the plant.
If food colouring is added to the water in the soil it travels up the stem and into the leaves and – with a flower – the petals. This illustrates how nutrients are delivered to all parts of the plant.
In a way, the food colouring you’ve added to the soil is a pollutant – the sort of substance environmental scientists might investigate. It’s not a particularly harmful material, but other pollutants might be. What would happen to the plant if a harmful pollutant was released into the soil?
Scientist of the Week – Saiful Islam
Creative – having original ideas and making new things.
Imaginative – thinking of interesting ideas.
Organised – being tidy and planning into order to complete tasks.
Saiful Islam is a British materials chemist who is Professor of Chemistry at the University of Bath. His research and teaching is about finding new ways to make electricity. Alongside his expertise in the field, his imagination has allowed him to help develop new types of batteries and solar cells. Saiful works in a team of researchers to carry out tests on the new technology. His planning and organisation skills help the team complete their work on time.
Saiful recently presented the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, a series of demonstration-based lectures every year. These allowed him to show his creative side.
Science for Families: Activities supporting the ‘Light’ session
This resource is designed to accompany the Science for Families course delivered by NUSTEM or one of our partners. It’s a six-week parent and child course delivered in primary schools.
You’re welcome to use the resources for other purposes, but they might not make quite as much sense!
Congratulations on making it to the Light page of Science for Families! You’re probably here because your curious about light and want to know what to do next with your spectroscope. We’ll you’ve come to the right place!
Big question number 1: how does this cardboard tube and CD thing (spectroscope) actually work?
Your spectroscope works through a process called diffraction; when light is passed through a very narrow slit it is spread out into different wavelengths. The CD contains lots of tiny slits which cause the light to split up into various different colours. The small cardboard slit helps to create a narrower beam of light and makes things clearer (if you take away the slit the pattern becomes less clear – try it!). The different bands of colour you can see are light at different wavelengths. Light with a short wavelength sits towards the blue/purple end of the spectrum; light with a longer wavelength sits towards the red/orange end.
Big question number 2: what to do next?
Take a look at the three sections below to find out what you can do with your spectroscope and how you can experiment further with light.
Investigating light with your spectroscope
Investigation time! You’ll need your spectroscope, a source of light and a camera for this. The camera on your mobile phone will work perfectly.
Choose a light source, maybe the screen of your computer, and point the spectroscope at it. Then carefully take a photo through the spectroscope using your camera. This can get a bit awkward, don’t drop your phone!
Now try again with a different light source. Once you have a few photos, compare them and try to spot similarities and differences. Here are the photos we took…
Don’t use your spectroscope to look directly at the sun. We’d prefer everyone doing this course to finish with just as much eyesight as they started. Thanks.
So… what’s going on?
The colours you see depend upon the type of light source you’re looking at. To be super-accurate, the colours depend on the chemical elements that are involved in giving off the light. You’ll have heard of some elements before: oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, aluminium, and gold are all examples of elements.
Different elements produce different patterns of colour – different spectra. Typically, a light source that’s trying to represent white will use several elements, and hence several spectra, to produce a good enough blend to fool your eye into seeing pure white.
The pictures below show some images of common spectra. If you compare these with your photos you might be able to work out what elements are in use in your light sources.
More experiments to try at home
Think Week 2015
Monday & Tuesday
Monday began as all good Mondays should: with a newspaper tower building competition. Our twenty-one Think Weekers met their group for the first time and came up with some inventive group names: The Botanists, The Test Monkeys, Team Lightning and The Physics Thinkers.
The tallest towers stood over 2m high and were able to support the mass of our daring plastic pig!
During the afternoon, we met our pet Spheros. These robotic spheres are controlled using iPads, and we built four intricate mazes which we then expertly navigated them around.
We delved further into the world of robotics on Tuesday and used Arduinos, servos, musical instruments and a mountain of glue to create a robotic orchestra.
In the afternoon, we explored the world of 3D design using TinkerCad. You can see our designs at our TinkerCad page.
I can think of nothing better to do on a Wednesday in July than visit the Centre for Life – so that’s just what we did.
We explored Life from top to bottom: we played on retro computer games and struggled with exactly how to hold the N64 controller in the Game On 2.0 exhibition. We watched the stars turn above our heads in the Planetarium. We discovered the wonderful world of spinning physics in the Science Show. We also learned how to use microscopes and pipettes in the Experiment Zone.
All in all, it was a fantastic day – we all marched back to Think Lab with huge smiles on our faces.
Our camera obscuras allowed us project an image onto a small screen inside a cardboard box. We also tried out some big camera obscuras too. By lunchtime we were able to look above, behind and all around with our adjustable periscopes.
During the afternoon we left the world of physics behind and headed into Exhibition Park for a spot of minibeast hunting. We used pooters and quadrats to search for and collect a wonderful variety of different minibeasts. Take a look at the gallery to see what we found. We also used USB microscopes to get up close and personal with the various bugs, beetles, worms and spiders we found.
Our last day!
Our morning was filled with Bubble Science. In the lab, we learned all about surface tension by dropping water onto pennies and creating milk fireworks. We blew some huge bubbles inside bubbles (inside bubbles inside bubbles…). We discovered antibubbles and made some of our own. Finally we went outside to blow some gigantic bubbles using our super-secret bubble mixture (recipe to the right) and bubble wands.
Forces and friction filled our afternoon and we designed and tested plasticine submarines. We learned the difference between static and kinetic friction and now know all about the Bloodhound Land Speed Record car.
We finished Think Week with some brilliant presentations to parents. Think Week was a fantastic success and the children were brilliant. Keep your eyes on the Think Physics website for more exciting opportunities.
Our not-top-secret-because-we-got-it-from-somewhere-else giant bubble recipe
5g Guar Gum
200ml Fairy Liquid (Original)
16g Baking Powder
4 litres of cold water
Mix the Guar Gum and the Fairy Liquid in a large bucket then gently add 4 litres of cold water. Stir the solution and add the baking powder. Next, go outside and blow some huge bubbles. Then tweet pictures of your bubbles to @thinkphysicsne
This recipe comes from NightHawkInLight. You can find his bubbles videos on YouTube here.
Everyone loves soap bubbles. Most of us really love them. Particularly when they’re huge hovering things, hanging in the air or floating gently away.
Making large bubbles is easier than you might think. People argue endlessly over different soap mixtures (they’re a classic subject of after-dinner
arguments conversation for science communicators), but standard household washing-up liquid is almost as good as even the finest formulations. The real trick is in the way you blow bubbles, as this film will show you.
This is another film from the Royal Institution’s ExpeRimental series, all of which are worth checking out.
We’ve written up an entire page about bubbles, including a beautiful way of viewing soap film colours.
You’ll find this activity all over the internet and in loads of science activity books, and this is a particularly nice film both illustrating it and exploring how you might use it as a family project. There’s plenty to discuss around around why some things float and others sink, and hence the concept of density.
This is another film from the Royal Institution’s excellent ExpeRimental series.
Tag Archive for: chemistry
What do Aquafresh toothpaste, Horlicks and Amoxil antibiotic all have in common? They’re all products created and manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). GSK is a global pharmaceutical company which has been formed through the merger of lots of different companies. There are three main areas of healthcare that GSK are involved in: GSK have offices in more than 150 countries, a network of 86 manufacturing sites in 36 countries and large R&D centres in the UK, USA, Spain, Belgium and China. In the UK GSK employ around 16,000 people across 18 sites. One of their Research and Development sites is based in Barnard Castle in the north east of England. With such a wide range of different products and brands, GSK have a wide range of careers available. Some examples of possible roles: Topics in science and maths that link to GSK and what the company does:
What do Aquafresh toothpaste, Horlicks and Amoxil antibiotic all have in common?
They’re all products created and manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK).
GSK is a global pharmaceutical company which has been formed through the merger of lots of different companies.
There are three main areas of healthcare that GSK are involved in:
GSK have offices in more than 150 countries, a network of 86 manufacturing sites in 36 countries and large R&D centres in the UK, USA, Spain, Belgium and China. In the UK GSK employ around 16,000 people across 18 sites. One of their Research and Development sites is based in Barnard Castle in the north east of England.
With such a wide range of different products and brands, GSK have a wide range of careers available. Some examples of possible roles:
Topics in science and maths that link to GSK and what the company does:
Knowing whether water is safe to drink or to use is very important. We can see when water contains large impurities like dirt and leaves, we can’t see microbes or chemicals that are lurking in there. Palintest develop and sell products that can be used to test and analyse water quality. That could be water that has been processed in a water-treatment works (sewage works) and that will be returned to the environment, or it could be water in swimming pools, hydrotherapy pools or spas. They also sell products to test soil quality through analysing the water in the soil. Palintest have a wide range of different jobs to allow them to manufacture and sell their products, and to support the customers who buy them. Topics in science and maths that link to Palintest and its products:
Knowing whether water is safe to drink or to use is very important. We can see when water contains large impurities like dirt and leaves, we can’t see microbes or chemicals that are lurking in there.
Palintest develop and sell products that can be used to test and analyse water quality. That could be water that has been processed in a water-treatment works (sewage works) and that will be returned to the environment, or it could be water in swimming pools, hydrotherapy pools or spas.
They also sell products to test soil quality through analysing the water in the soil.
Palintest have a wide range of different jobs to allow them to manufacture and sell their products, and to support the customers who buy them.
Topics in science and maths that link to Palintest and its products:
Chemistry, Logistics, Science
Procter and Gamble
What do having a shower, washing the pots after dinner and changing a baby’s nappy have in common? They all involve making things cleaner. And Procter and Gamble have products which are used for all three. Procter and Gamble is a company which develops and manufactures lots of different products which help people to make their world a little bit more pleasant. The company started out making soap and candles, but now produces a wide range of home and personal care products from Fairy liquid, Pampers, Gillette, Tampax and Ariel. But not candles nowadays! The company has offices across the world. The Innovation Centre in Longbenton, Newcastle is one of the sites where new products are developed. Jobs that people working at Procter and Gamble have include: You can read about some of the people who work at P&G, and watch some short films on the company’s careers website. Topics in science and maths that link to Procter and Gamble:
What do having a shower, washing the pots after dinner and changing a baby’s nappy have in common?
They all involve making things cleaner. And Procter and Gamble have products which are used for all three.
Procter and Gamble is a company which develops and manufactures lots of different products which help people to make their world a little bit more pleasant.
The company started out making soap and candles, but now produces a wide range of home and personal care products from Fairy liquid, Pampers, Gillette, Tampax and Ariel. But not candles nowadays!
The company has offices across the world. The Innovation Centre in Longbenton, Newcastle is one of the sites where new products are developed.
Jobs that people working at Procter and Gamble have include:
You can read about some of the people who work at P&G, and watch some short films on the company’s careers website.
Topics in science and maths that link to Procter and Gamble:
The population of the world is growing. To make sure everyone has enough food to eat, we need to be able to grow nutritious food and make sure it gets to where it’s needed. However, factors such as climate change, environmental damage and the increase in the number and size of cities mean it’s getting harder for farmers to grow sufficient food.
Syngenta is a biotechnology company based in Switzerland, with sites across the UK, including in Grangemouth, Manchester and Huddersfield. They sell seeds, and also develop pesticides – chemical compounds which protect crops from weeds, insects and disease, which hence help to improve crop yields and reduce the proportion of crops which are destroyed. They also use selective breeding to create varieties of plants and seeds that are naturally resistant to disease and insects, or that are better at coping with the effects of heat or cold.
“One third of all pansies in the world are Syngenta pansies”
They also sell turf, ornamental plants and flowers. Flowering plants aren’t just pretty to look at: they can help promote biodiversity by sustaining pollinating insects.
Syngenta researcher Dr Melloney Morris was filmed for the Royal Society of Chemistry’s Faces of Chemistry project. Three short films were produced:
Agriculture, Biotechnology, Chemistry, Logistics
Syngenta is a very large company, with a wide range of different career routes:
- environmental scientists
- plant pathologists
- formulation chemists
- process engineers
- chemical engineers
- construction and maintenance staff
- civil and infrastructure engineers
- data analysts
- mathematical modellers
- Accountants and financial planners
- IT specialists including software engineers
- Sales and customer support
- quality assurance managers
Topics in science and maths that link to Syngenta and what the company does:
- plant reproduction
- plant cells
Employer: Northumbrian Water
Northumbrian Water supply water and sewerage services to over 1.3 million homes across the North-East of England. We use a lot of water – enough that Northumbrian Water measure in hundreds of megalitres. Every day. Bear in mind that just one megalitre of water weighs a thousand tonnes, and you’ll realise they move and process vast amounts of the stuff. It’s a good job they do, though, or we’d all soon (a) smell, and (b) be really thirsty. Very smelly and thirsty indeed.
To move that much water, Northumbrian Water operates a vast of network reservoirs, treatment works, pumping stations, more than 25,000 km of water mains and over 29,000 km of sewer pipes.
The company also operates Kielder Water and Forest Park in Northumberland, the largest artificial lake in the UK and host to more than 250,000 visitors a year.
Northumbrian Water are a higher-tech business than you might imagine, with substantial research and development efforts around reclaiming energy from waste sludge. It’s not the sort of thing that sounds glamorous, but harvesting burnable methane from decomposing sewage is the sort of technology that could have an impact on renewable energy use. It also helps sewage smell less.
With around 3,000 staff, Northumbrian Water offers a wide range of opportunities across business, science, engineering and digital fields.
Among the different roles at Northumbrian Water are:
- Water Quality Scientist
- Highways Technician
- Mechanical Engineer
- Service Desk Analyst
- Civil Engineer
- Cost Estimator
- Operational Research Engineer
- Conservation Advisor
- Health and disease
- Ecosystems – material cycling
- Chemical analysis – assessing purity and separating mixtures
- Water resources and obtaining potable water
- Renewable energy sources
- Particle model of matter
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